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What Is Cyber Warfare?

Cyber warfare consists of attacks on computer systems of countries or institutions with the intention of disrupting, damaging, or destroying infrastructure. Cyber warfare can also be used to cause death. 

Cyber warfare often refers to the techniques used during cyber war. While it involves one group’s computers attacking those of another group, the effects on the general population or critical systems can often have far-reaching ramifications.

What Does Cyber Warfare Look Like?

Cyber warfare can take many forms, but all of them involve either the destabilization or destruction of critical systems. The objective is to weaken the target country by compromising its core systems.

This means cyber warfare may take several different shapes:

  1. Attacks on financial infrastructure
  2. Attacks on public infrastructure like dams or electrical systems
  3. Attacks on safety infrastructure like traffic signals or early warning systems
  4. Attacks against military resources or organizations

Cyber Warfare vs. Cyber War

Cyber warfare is different from cyber war in that cyber warfare typically refers to the techniques used while engaging in cyber war. For example, a state-sponsored hacker may try to hack into the Bank of England as an act of cyber warfare while engaging in a cyber war against England and its allies.

What Are the Types of Cyber Warfare?

Espionage

Espionage refers to spying on another country to steal secrets. In cyber warfare, this may involve using a botnet or spear-fishing attack to gain a foothold in a computer before extracting sensitive information.

Sabotage

With sensitive information identified, organizations then need to determine the potential threats presented to this data. This includes third parties that may want to steal the data, competitors that could gain an advantage by stealing information, and insider threats or malicious insiders like disgruntled workers or negligent employees

Denial-of-Service Attack

A denial-of-service (DoS) attack involves flooding a website with fake requests, forcing the site to process those requests, thereby making it unavailable for legitimate users. This kind of attack could be used to cripple a critical website used by citizens, military personnel, safety personnel, scientists, or others to disrupt critical operations or systems.

Electrical Power Grid

Hacking the electrical power grid could give an attacker the ability to disable critical systems, crippling infrastructure and causing the deaths of thousands. Further, an attack on the electrical power grid could disrupt communications, making it impossible to use services like text messaging or telecommunication.

Propaganda

Propaganda attacks involve trying to control the minds or hearts of the people living in or fighting for the targeted country. Propaganda can be used to expose embarrassing truths or to spread lies that cause people to lose faith in their country—or even sympathize with the enemy.

Economic Disruption

Most modern economic systems depend on computers to function. Attacking the computer networks of economic facilities like stock markets, payment systems, or banks can give hackers access to funds or prevent their targets from getting the money they need to live or engage in cyber or other warfare.

Surprise Cyberattack

These refer to the kinds of cyberattacks that would have an effect similar to Pearl Harbor or 9/11—massive strikes that catch the enemy off guard, weakening their defenses. They could be used to weaken the opponent in preparation for a physical attack as a form of hybrid warfare.

Reasons and Motivations for Cyber Warfare

Military

It is in the military’s best interests to gain control of key elements of an enemy nation’s cyberspace. An effective cyberattack could bring an enemy country’s military to its knees and secure what would have been an otherwise costly victory.

Civil

Attacking the civil infrastructure of a nation directly impacts the people living and working in the country. This could be used to inspire fear or cause them to revolt against the government in protest, weakening the opponent from a political standpoint.

Hacktavism

Hacktivism involves hackers using cyberattacks to promote an ideology. Hacktivists can engage in cyber warfare by spreading propaganda or going after secrets and then exposing them to the rest of the world. In these ways, hacktivists can weaken an opponent’s standing on the world stage, precluding support from other countries.

Income Generation

Cyber warfare “soldiers” can engage in these kinds of attacks for their own financial benefit. If they are employed by the government, they can earn a fee for their services. Further, they could break the defenses of a financial institution and steal money for themselves.

Nonprofit Research

Nonprofit research often reveals very valuable information that a country can use to solve a critical problem. For example, if a country is trying to develop a vaccine and another one already has it, cyber warfare could be used to steal information pertaining to their solution.

Cyber Warfare Carried Out in the Past

In 2010, Stuxnet was used to inflict physical damage on an enemy’s industrial systems. It was, reportedly, used against Iran’s nuclear program. In March 2014, Russia levied a distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack on Ukraine and also crippled Ukraine’s election commission.

In 2015, Chinese hackers stole millions of records from the United States’ Office of Personnel Management (OPM). Also, in 2017, weaponized ransomware NotPetya was used to attack Ukraine.

Cyber Warfare and Fortinet

With the Fortinet Cyber Threat Assessment, you can get a complete profile of your organization’s potential exposure to cyberattacks. A comprehensive cybersecurity report gives you a full picture of the security risks you are vulnerable to, including malware, botnets, and phishing attacks

You can also gain an understanding of how different applications and content are impacting employee productivity. Furthermore, you can see how bandwidth and other digital resources are being used across the organization.

FAQs

What is cyber warfare?

Cyber warfare consists of attacks on computer systems of countries or institutions with the intention of disrupting, damaging, or destroying infrastructure.

What does cyber warfare look like?

Cyber warfare may take several different shapes:

  1. Attacks on financial infrastructure
  2. Attacks on public infrastructure like dams or electrical systems
  3. Attacks on safety infrastructure like traffic signals or early warning systems
  4. Attacks against military resources or organizations

Difference between cyber warfare vs. cyber war?

Cyber warfare is different from cyber war in that cyber warfare typically refers to the techniques used while engaging in cyber war.

What are the reasons and motivations for cyber warfare?

Cyber warfare is often driven by a desire to weaken an enemy’s military, civil infrastructure, or to influence the thinking of its citizens. In some cases, cyber warfare is caused by a desire for money on the part of the attacker.