What is Identity and Access Management (IAM)?
Compromised user credentials are among the most common targets for hackers to gain entry into organizations’ networks through malware, phishing, and ransomware attacks. It is therefore vital for enterprises to safeguard their most valuable resources. Many are increasingly turning to Identity and Access Management (IAM) solutions to protect their data and people.
Identity and Access Management (IAM) Definition
IAM is a framework of policies, processes, and technologies that enable organizations to manage digital identities and control user access to critical corporate information. By assigning users with specific roles and ensuring they have the right level of access to corporate resources and networks, IAM improves security and user experience, enables better business outcomes, and increases the viability of mobile and remote working and cloud adoption.
How Identity and Access Management Boosts Security
The core objective of an IAM solution is to assign one digital identity to each individual or a device. From there, the solution maintains, modifies, and monitors access levels and privileges through each user’s access life cycle.
The core responsibilities of an IAM system are to:
- Verify and authenticate users based on their roles and contextual information such as geography, time of day, or (trusted) networks
- Capture and record user login events
- Manage and provide visibility of the business’s user identity database
- Manage the assignment and removal of users’ access privileges
- Enable system administrators to manage and restrict user access and monitor changes in user privileges
Role-Based Access Control
IAM frameworks are not only crucial to controlling user access to critical information but also implementing role-based access control. This enables system administrators to regulate access to corporate networks or systems based on individual users’ roles, which are defined by their job title, level of authority, and responsibility within the business.
An IAM solution is also crucial to preventing security risks when employees depart a business. Manually de-provisioning access privileges to the apps and services the former employee used can often take time or even be forgotten entirely, leaving a security gap for hackers. IAM prevents this by automatically de-provisioning access rights once a user leaves the company or as their role within the organization changes.
Human and Device Identification
Digital identities do not just exist for humans, as IAM also manages the identity of devices and applications. This establishes further trust and provides deeper context around whether a user is who they say they are and the applications that users are entitled to access.
An IAM solution consists of various components and systems. The most commonly deployed include:
1. Single Sign-On
Single sign-on (SSO) is a form of access control that enables users to authenticate with multiple applications or systems using just one login and one set of credentials. The application or site that the user attempts to access relies on a trusted third party to verify that the user is who they say they are, resulting in:
Enhanced user experience
Reduced password fatigue
Simplified password management
Minimized security risks for customers, partners, and vendors
Limited credential usage
Improved identity protection
2. Multi-Factor Authentication
Multi-factor authentication verifies a user's identity by requiring them to enter multiple credentials and provide various factors:
- Something the user knows: a password
- Something the user has: a token or code sent to the user via email or SMS, to a hardware token generator, or to an authenticator application installed on the user’s smartphone
- Something specific to the user, such as biometric information
3. Privileged Access Management
Privileged access management protects businesses from both cyber and insider attacks by assigning higher permission levels to accounts with access to critical corporate resources and administrator-level controls. These accounts are typically high-value targets for cybercriminals and, as such, high risk for organizations.
4. Risk-Based Authentication
When a user attempts to log in to an application, a risk-based authentication solution looks at contextual features such as their current device, IP address, location, or network to assess the risk level.
Based on this, it will decide whether to allow the user access to the application, prompt them to submit an additional authentication factor, or deny them access. This helps businesses immediately identify potential security risks, gain deeper insight into user context, and increase security with additional authentication factors.
5. Data Governance
Data governance is the process that enables businesses to manage the availability, integrity, security, and usability of their data. This includes the use of data policies and standards around data usage to ensure that data is consistent, trustworthy, and does not get misused. Data governance is important within an IAM solution as artificial intelligence and machine learning tools rely on businesses having quality data.
6. Federated Identity Management
Federated identity management is an authentication-sharing process whereby businesses share digital identities with trusted partners. This enables users to use the services of multiple partners using the same credentials. Single sign-on is an example of this process in practice.
A Zero-Trust approach moves businesses away from the traditional idea of trusting everyone or everything that is connected to a network or behind a firewall. This view is no longer acceptable, given the adoption of the cloud and mobile devices extending the workplace beyond the four walls of the office and enabling people to work from anywhere. IAM is crucial in this approach, as it allows businesses to constantly assess and verify the people accessing their resources.