What Is a Proxy Server?

A proxy server provides a gateway between users and the internet. It is a server, referred to as an “intermediary” because it goes between end-users and the websites they visit online.

When a computer connects to the internet, it needs an IP address, which is similar to your home’s street address. When there is data from the internet that should go to your computer, your computer’s IP address tells it where to go. Likewise, when your computer sends data to the internet, its IP address acts like a return address on an envelope, telling other devices where the data is coming from. A proxy server is essentially a computer on the internet that has an IP address of its own.

Proxy Servers and Network Security

Proxy servers provide a valuable layer of security for your computer. They can be set up as web filters or firewalls, protecting your computer from internet threats.

The extra security a proxy server offers is also valuable when coupled with a secure web gateway or other email security products. This way, you can filter traffic according to its level of safety or how much traffic your network—or individual computers—can handle.

Some people use proxy servers for personal purposes, such as hiding their location while watching movies online. For a company, however, a proxy server can be used to accomplish several key tasks such as:

  1. Improve security
  2. Secure employees’ internet activity from people trying to snoop on them
  3. Balance internet traffic to prevent crashes
  4. Control the websites employees access
  5. Save bandwidth by caching files or compressing incoming traffic

How a Proxy Works

Because a proxy server has its own IP address, it acts as a go-between for a computer and the internet. Your computer knows this address, and when you send a request on the internet, it is routed to the proxy server first. The proxy server then gets the response from the web server and forwards the data from the page to your computer’s browser, like Chrome, Safari, Firefox, or Microsoft Edge.

How to Get a Proxy

Proxy servers have hardware and software versions. Hardware solutions sit between your network and the internet, where they get, send, and forward data from the web. Software proxies are typically hosted by a provider or reside in the cloud. You install an app on your computer that facilitates interaction with the proxy.

Often, a software proxy can be obtained for a monthly fee. Sometimes, they are free. The free versions tend to offer users fewer IP addresses and may only cover a few devices, while the paid proxies can meet the demands of a business with many devices needing many IP addresses.

How Is a Proxy Set Up?

To get started with a proxy server, you have to set it up in your computer, device, or network. Each operating system has its own setup procedures, so check the steps required for your computer or network.

In most cases, however, setup means using an automatic configuration script, which figures out the IP address and port settings. If you want to do it manually, there will be options to enter the IP address and the port your computer should use to communicate with the proxy server.

How Does the Proxy Protect Computer Privacy and Data?

A proxy server performs the function of a firewall and filter. The end-user or a network administrator can choose a proxy designed to protect data and privacy. The proxy examines the data going in and out of your computer or network. It then applies rules to prevent harmful data from affecting your system.

To help you maintain privacy, a proxy server prevents you from having to expose your IP address to the world. Only the proxy’s IP address is seen by hackers or other bad actors. Without your personal IP address, people on the internet do not have direct access to your personal data, schedules, apps, or files. Because a proxy has its own IP address, it can communicate with the internet on your behalf. It is like a mailman that knows exactly what you want and do not want coming to your home. Unwanted or dangerous material is kept away from your system.

FortiGuard Incident Response services provide IT and security teams with experienced staff and tools to handle a cybersecurity situation.

Without a proxy server, your computer sends out web requests directly to the internet, exposing its IP address in the process. With a proxy server in place, web requests go to the proxy, which then reaches out and gets what you want from the internet. If the server has encryption capabilities, passwords and other personal data get an extra tier of protection.

Benefits of a Proxy Server

Proxy servers come with several benefits that can give your business an advantage:

  1. Enhanced security: Proxy servers can act like a firewall between your system and the internet. Without a proxy server, hackers have easy access to your IP address, which they can use to infiltrate your computer or network.
  2. Private browsing, watching, listening, and shopping: All internet activity is associated with the proxy server's IP address instead of your computer's or network’s. Using different proxies can help you avoid getting inundated with unwanted ads or the collection of IP-specific data.
  3. Access to location-specific content: You can designate a proxy server with an IP address compatible with content housed in a location that would normally block IP addresses from your country. You can, in effect, make it look like you are in that country and gain full access to all the content computers in that country are allowed to interact with.
  4. Prevent employees from browsing inappropriate or distracting sites: You can use a proxy server to block access to websites that run contrary to your organization’s principles. Also, you can block sites that typically end up distracting employees from important tasks. Some organizations use proxy servers to block social media sites like Facebook and others to remove time-wasting temptations.

Types of Proxy Servers

While all proxy servers give users an alternate IP address with which to use the internet, there are several different kinds—each with its own features.

Forward Proxy

A forward proxy sits in front of clients and is used to get data to groups of users within an internal network. When a request is sent, the proxy server examines it to decide whether it should proceed with making a connection.

A forward proxy is best suited for internal networks that need a single point of entry. It provides IP address security for those in the network and allows for straightforward administrative control. However, a forward proxy may limit an organization’s ability to cater to the needs of individual end-users.

Transparent Proxy

A transparent proxy can give users an experience identical to what they would have if they were using their home computer. In that way, it is “transparent.” They can also be “forced” on users, meaning they are connected without knowing it.

Transparent proxies are well-suited for companies that want to make use of a proxy without making employees aware they are using one. It carries the advantage of providing a seamless user experience. On the other hand, transparent proxies are more susceptible to certain security threats, such as SYN-flood denial-of-service attacks.

Anonymous Proxy

An anonymous proxy focuses on making internet activity untraceable. It works by accessing the internet on behalf of the user while hiding their identity and computer information.

A transparent proxy is best suited for users who want to have full anonymity while accessing the internet. While transparent proxies provide some of the best identity protection possible, they are not without drawbacks. Many view the use of transparent proxies as underhanded, and users sometimes face pushback or discrimination as a result.

High Anonymity Proxy

A high anonymity proxy is an anonymous proxy that takes anonymity one step further. It works by erasing your information before the proxy attempts to connect to the target site.

A high anonymity proxy server is best suited for users for whom anonymity is an absolute necessity, such as employees who do not want their activity traced back to the organization. On the downside, some of them, particularly the free ones, are decoys set up to trap users in order to access their personal information or data.

Distorting Proxy

A distorting proxy identifies itself as a proxy to a website but hides its own identity. It does this by “distorting” its IP address, changing it to an incorrect one.

Distorting proxies are a good choice for people who want to hide their location while accessing the internet. This type of proxy can make it look like you are browsing from a specific country. Distorting proxies give you the advantage of hiding not just your identity but that of the proxy, too. This means even if you are associated with the proxy, your identity is still secure. However, some websites automatically block distorting proxies, which could keep an end-user from accessing sites they need.

Data Center Proxy

Data center proxies are not affiliated with an internet service provider (ISP) but are provided by another corporation through a data center. The proxy server exists in a physical data center, and the user’s requests are routed through that server.

Data center proxies are a good choice for people who need quick response times and an inexpensive solution. They are therefore a good choice for people who need to gather intelligence on a person or organization very quickly. They carry the benefit of giving users the power to swiftly and inexpensively harvest data. On the other hand, they do not offer the highest level of anonymity, which may put users’ information or identity at risk.

Residential Proxy

A residential proxy gives you an IP address that belongs to a specific, physical device. It works by assigning you the IP address of the device it is using. All requests are then channeled through that device.

Residential proxies are well-suited for users who need to verify the ads that go on their website, so you can block suspicious or unwanted ads from competitors or bad actors. Residential proxies are more trustworthy than other proxy options. However, they often cost more money to use, so users should carefully analyze whether the benefits are worth the extra investment.

Public Proxy

A public proxy is accessible by anyone free of charge. It works by giving users access to its IP address, hiding their identity as they visit sites. 

Public proxies are best suited for users for whom cost is a major concern and security and speed are not. Although they are free and easily accessible, they are often slow because they get bogged down with free users. When you use a public proxy, you also run an increased risk of having your information accessed by others on the internet.

Shared Proxy

Shared proxies are used by more than one user at once. They give you access to an IP address that may be shared by other people, and then you can surf the internet while appearing to browse from a location of your choice.

Shared proxies are a solid option for people who do not have a lot of money to spend and do not necessarily need a fast connection. The main advantage of a shared proxy is its low cost. Because they are shared by others, you may get blamed for someone else’s bad decisions, which could get you banned from a site.

SSL Proxy

An SSL proxy uses a secure sockets layer (SSL), which provides decryption between the client and the server. As the data is encrypted in both directions, the SSL proxy hides its existence from both the client and the server.

SSL proxies are best suited for organizations that need enhanced protection against threats that the SSL protocol reveals and stops. Because Google prefers servers that use SSL, an SSL proxy, when used in connection with a website, may help its search engine ranking. On the downside, content encrypted on an SSL proxy cannot be cached, so when visiting websites multiple times, you may experience slower performance than you would otherwise.

Rotating Proxy

A rotating proxy assigns a different IP address to each user that connects to it. It works by starting with a pool of IP addresses. As users connect, they are given an address that is unique from the device that connected before it.

Rotating proxies are ideal for users who need to do a lot of high-volume, continuous web scraping. They allow you to return to the same website again and again anonymously. However, you have to be careful when choosing rotating proxy services. Some of them contain public or shared proxies that could expose your data.

Reverse Proxy

Unlike a forward proxy, which sits in front of clients, a reverse proxy is positioned in front of web servers and forwards requests from a browser to the web servers. It works by intercepting requests from the user at the network edge of the web server. It then sends the requests to and receives replies from the origin server.

Reverse proxies are a strong option for popular websites that need to balance the load of many incoming requests. They can help an organization reduce bandwidth load because they act like another web server managing incoming requests. The downside is reverse proxies can potentially expose the HTTP server architecture if an attacker is able to penetrate it. This means network administrators may have to beef up or reposition their firewall if they are using a reverse proxy.

Proxy Server vs. VPN

On the surface, proxy servers and virtual private networks (VPNs) may seem interchangeable because they both route requests and responses through an external server. Both VPNs and proxy servers also allow you to access websites that would otherwise block the country you’re physically located in. However, VPNs carry an additional advantage because they encrypt all traffic. As a result, a VPN provides better protection against hackers.

Choosing VPN or Proxy

If you need to constantly access the internet to send and receive data that should be encrypted or if your company has to reveal data you must hide from hackers and corporate spies, a VPN would be a better choice.

If an organization merely needs to allow its users to browse the internet anonymously, a proxy server may do the trick. A proxy server is the better solution if you simply want to know which websites team members are using or you want to make sure they have access to sites that block users from your country.

A VPN is better suited for business use because users usually need secure data transmission in both directions. Company information and personnel data can be very valuable in the wrong hands, and a VPN provides the encryption you need to keep it protected. For personal use where a breach would only affect you, a single user, a proxy server may be an adequate choice. You can also use both technologies simultaneously, particularly if you want to limit the websites that users within your network visit while also encrypting their communications.

Secure Web Connection for Businesses

FortiGate has the capability of both proxies and VPNs. It shields users from data breaches that often happen with high-speed traffic and uses IPsec and SSL to enhance security. FortiGate also harnesses the power of the FortiASIC hardware accelerator to enhance performance without compromising privacy. Secure your network with FortiGate VPN and proxy capabilities.